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[edit] Reserves

Top 20 countries by coal reserves (in mega-tonnes):

Country ReservesMt
United States 238,308,000,000,000
Russia 157,010,000,000,000
China 114,500,000,000,000
Australia 76,200,000,000,000
India 58,600,000,000,000
Ukraine 33,873,000,000,000
Kazakhstan 31,300,000,000,000
South Africa 30,408,000,000,000
Poland 7,502,000,000,000
Brazil 7,059,000,000,000
Colombia 6,814,000,000,000
Germany 6,708,000,000,000
Canada 6,578,000,000,000
Czech Republic 4,501,000,000,000
Indonesia 4,328,000,000,000
Greece 3,900,000,000,000
Hungary 3,302,000,000,000
Pakistan 2,070,000,000,000
Bulgaria 1,996,000,000,000
Turkey 1,814,000,000,000

[edit] Transportation

Transportation costs of coal make up relatively high share of end price as coal is a cheap commodity. Thus most of coal is consumed within the vicinity of its production. Due to substantial costs of transportation there is no global market for coal.

[edit] Pricing

Due to lack of global market and interrelations with other markets coal prices are the least volatile from all fuel markets. Also most power plants using coal rely on scale and continuous operation (are [Base load|base load]]). And their fuel supply is based on long term contracts with nearby coal suppliers. There are also less bottlenecks in ramping coal production up and down compared to gas or oil as coal recovery is relatively a simpler.

[edit] Power generation

The largest consumer of coal is the power generation sector (~90%). Around half of all power generated in the world comes from burning coal. Coal is the least expensive way to generate electricity out of the fossil fuels (at 1/5 of other fuels). But it is also the most polluting of the fuels. Most coal power plants are base load as they take time and are expensive to cycle.

Coal prices are not linked to power prices as the commodity is relatively cheap. Though coal prices are likely to be linked to CO2 prices via electricity generation as coal is the major pollutant in the power sector.

[edit] Types of coal

Click here to see the same page for other fuel types.

[edit] Coal as Fuel

[edit] Top 20 Power Plants in the World using Coal as a Primary Fuel

Plant ProductionMWh IntensityKgMWh Country Capacity_MW Status
Taichung Powerplant 39,200,000.00 917.16 Taiwan 5,780.00
Zouxian Powerplant 34,500,000.00 879.97 China 4,540.00 Operational
Mailiao Fp Powerplant 32,900,000.00 824.18 Taiwan 4,200.00
Taean Powerplant 32,400,000.00 825.09 South Korea 4,000.00
Hekinan Powerplant 30,000,000.00 830.53 Japan 4,100.00
Huaneng Yuhuan Powerplant 28,800,000.00 833.70 China 4,000.00
Poryong Powerplant 27,800,000.00 765.21 South Korea
Tangjin Powerplant 26,700,000.00 838.69 South Korea 4,000.00
Scherer Powerplant 26,500,000.00 933.95 United States 3,564.00
Kendal Powerplant 25,500,000.00 953.91 South Africa 4,116.00
Gibson Powerplant 25,000,000.00 814.65 United States 3,339.50
Suralaya Powerplant 24,500,000.00 957.08 Indonesia 3,500.00 Operational
Bowen Powerplant 24,000,000.00 877.25 United States 3,540.40
Samchonpo Powerplant 23,700,000.00 921.25 South Korea 3,240.00
Tuoketuo-1 Powerplant 23,300,000.00 961.62 China 5,400.00 Operational
Majuba Powerplant 23,000,000.00 962.52 South Africa 4110 Operational
Miller Powerplant 23,000,000.00 937.12 United States 2,822.00
Point Aconi Powerplant 22,800,000.00 64.86 Canada 165.00
Matimba Powerplant 22,600,000.00 964.34 South Africa
Talcher Stps Powerplant 22,400,000.00 949.82 India 3,000.00 Operational
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