Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery

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A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a member of a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle and aerospace applications. For example, lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common replacement for the lead acid batteries that have been used historically for golf carts and utility vehicles. Instead of heavy lead plates and acid electrolyte, the trend is to use lightweight lithium-ion battery packs that can provide the same voltage as lead-acid batteries, so no modification to the vehicle's drive system is required.

link={{{link}}} For more information, see also the Wikipedia page

Contents

[edit] Technology

Technology Readiness Level 9
Technical Maturity [low/med/high] Medium
Power Rating 0 kW - 10 MW
Application short-term storage, arbitrage, distributed/off-grid storage, frequency or voltage regulation, mobility
Year of Introduction 1976
Energetic Efficiency [%] 86-96
LCoE [€/kWh] 0.40-1.00

[edit] Usage

Lifetime Expectancy [years] 12-15
Installed Capacity in the Netherlands [GW] (not specified)
Installed Capacity in Europe [GW] (not specified)

[edit] Safety and Environment

Environmental Considerations Since Li-ion batteries contain no toxic metals (unlike other types of batteries which may contain lead or cadmium) they are generally categorized as non-hazardous waste. Li-ion battery elements including iron, copper, nickel and cobalt are considered safe for incinerators and landfills. These metals can be recycled, but mining generally remains cheaper than recycling. At present, not much is invested into recycling Li-ion batteries due to costs, complexities and low yield. The most expensive metal involved in the construction of the cell is cobalt. Lithium iron phosphate is cheaper but has other drawbacks. Lithium is less expensive than other metals used. The manufacturing processes of nickel and cobalt for the positive electrode and also the solvent, present potential environmental and health hazards.
Safety fatal accidents per GWh (not specified)


link={{{link}}} See the Template:DES_Process template for an explanation on these metrics

Products with this Technology

There are 35 Product pages for this technology.

Product Year TRL InstitutionalData Efficiency Cycles EURperKW EURperKWh AnnualOM LCoE Energy_Density_Wh_per_kg Power_Density_W_per_kg
Wemag AG Li-Mn storage plant 2014 8 0 4000 1200 1200 0.13-0.33
VW e-Golf 2014 9 0 76.1
UKPN Leighton Buzzard 2014 8 1 3000 1800
Toyota RAV4 EV 2012 9 0
Tesla Roadster 2008 Battery 2008 9 0 1500-2000 560 0.31-0.41 117 477
Tesla Powerwall 7 kWh 2015 9 0 92 700-4000 1331 380 0.10 - 0.60 70 20
Tesla Powerwall 10 kWh 2015 9 0 92 700-4000 1331 311 0.10 - 0.60 100 20
Tesla Model X 2015 9 0
Tesla Model S Battery 2012 9 0 75 250 0.07-0.28 140 516
Tesla Model III 2017 Estimate 2017 5 0 150 0.04-0.17
Southern California Edison Tehachapi Li-ion 2014 8 1 4900 1560
Sonnenbatterie eco 2 2015 9 0 10,000.00 1200 1500 0.15
Renault Zoe 2012 9 0 75.86
Renault Fluence ZE 2011 9 0 88
Panasonic NCR18650B (Li-ion) 2014 0 1000 690 130 120
Nissan Leaf 2011 2010 9 0 555 140 2500
Mitsubishi i-MiEV / Citroen C-Zero 2009 0 4000 80 235
Li-ion Literature 2008 2008 9 1 99 1000-10000 1200-4000 600-2500 0.15-1.00 75-200 150-315
Kia Soul EV 2014 9 0 200 96
IEA ETP 2014 Li-ion 2014 9 1 0.70-0.80
Generic LiFePo battery 2014 9 0 85 2000 300 90-110 300
GM Spark EV Li-ion battery 2012 9 0 83.8 220
Ford Focus EV 2012 9 0 400-500 80
ETM Li-Titanite batteries 2012 9 1 81 10,000.00 1615 318
EASE Li Polymer 2013 6 1 90-95 300-1000 100-180 300-500
EASE Li-ion Targets 2030 2030 9 1 10,000.00 20 200 0.05 180-350
EASE Li-ion Power 2013 1 90-95 800-3000 70-130 600-3000
EASE Li-ion Energy 2013 1 90-95 800-3000 110-220 200-600
David MacKay 2008 lithium-ion-polymer 2008 9 1 300-500 100-130
David MacKay 2008 lithium-ion 2008 9 1 300-500 110-160
DTU 2013 Li-ion 2013 7 1 90-94 4500 1800-4100 900-1700
Chevrolet Volt 2010 2010 9 0 84 560
Chevrolet Bolt Estimate 2017 9 0
BYD e6 2013 9 0
BMW i3 Batterypack 2013 9 0 180 95 540
link={{{link}}} For more demonstration projects, see the DoE Global Energy Storage Database

[edit] References and notes

reference notes linkworks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion Some basic info on Li-ion cells

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Facts about Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteryRDF feed
Applicationshort-term storage, arbitrage, distributed/off-grid storage, frequency or voltage regulation, mobility +
DoEStorage Technology Category URLhttp://www.energystorageexchange.org/projects?technology_type_sort_eqs=Lithium-ion%20Battery +
Energetic Efficiency86-96 +
Environmental ConsiderationsSince Li-ion batteries contain no toxic me Since Li-ion batteries contain no toxic metals (unlike other types of batteries which may contain lead or cadmium) they are generally categorized as non-hazardous waste. Li-ion battery elements including iron, copper, nickel and cobalt are considered safe for incinerators and landfills. These metals can be recycled, but mining generally remains cheaper than recycling. At present, not much is invested into recycling Li-ion batteries due to costs, complexities and low yield. The most expensive metal involved in the construction of the cell is cobalt. Lithium iron phosphate is cheaper but has other drawbacks. Lithium is less expensive than other metals used. The manufacturing processes of nickel and cobalt for the positive electrode and also the solvent, present potential environmental and health hazards. otential environmental and health hazards.
LCoE0.40-1.00 +
Lifetime Expectancy12-15 +
Power Rating0 kW - 10 MW +
Product Count35 +
Technical MaturityMedium +
Technology DescriptionA lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion ba A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery or LIB) is a member of a family of rechargeable battery types in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Lithium-ion batteries are common in consumer electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, no memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle and aerospace applications. For example, lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common replacement for the lead acid batteries that have been used historically for golf carts and utility vehicles. Instead of heavy lead plates and acid electrolyte, the trend is to use lightweight lithium-ion battery packs that can provide the same voltage as lead-acid batteries, so no modification to the vehicle's drive system is required. to the vehicle's drive system is required.
Technology Readiness Level9 +
Wikipedia pagehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion +
Year of Introduction1976 +
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